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White Horse Inn: Conversational Theology

The “Enthusiasts” of Church History: From Montanists to Modern Day “Prophets”

Martin Luther once said that, “Adam was the first enthusiast,” and by “enthusiast” he doesn’t mean someone who is enthusiastic. The philosophy of enthusiasm is “god-within-ism,” a belief and tendency to pit internal spirituality versus external texts, institutions, and authorities. In this episode, Michael Horton, Justin Holcomb, Walter Strickland, and Bob Hiller discuss how this “god-within-ism” has appeared in the church, from Montanists, to medieval monks, radical figures in the Reformation, Enlightenment philosophers, and contemporary movements today.


  • Michael Horton is White Horse Inn’s founder and co-host. In addition to serving as a J. Gresham Machen Professor of Systematic Theology and Apologetics at Westminster Seminary California, he is a minister in the United Reformed Churches. He is the author of more than 30 books.
  • Justin Holcomb is a Senior Fellow with Sola Media’s Theo Global. He is also the bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Central Florida, where he has served as the canon for vocations since 2013. He teaches theology and apologetics at Reformed Theological Seminary and Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary.
  • Bob Hiller is the Senior Pastor of Community Lutheran Church in Escondido, California. He is also the author of Finding Christ in the Straw.
  • Walter Strickland is Assistant Professor of Systematic and Contextual Theology at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. He has contributed to, edited, and authored multiple books in his areas of research interest, which include the African American theological tradition, education theory, and theology of work.


More from this Series: Shamans in the Church

  1. The “Enthusiasts” of Church History: From Montanists to Modern Day “Prophets” Listen Now ›
  2. The New (Old) Apostolic Reformation Listen Now ›
  3. “I Have Nothing Left to Hear Me Say”: Religion without Authority Listen Now ›
  4. Michael Horton’s New Book on the Origins of “Spiritual but Not Religious” Listen Now ›